Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies. A C-c section and sex typically takes 45 minutes to an hour.
It may be done with a spinal block where the woman is awake or under general anesthesia. C-sections result in a small overall increase in poor outcomes in low-risk pregnancies. They also typically take longer to heal from, about six weeks, than vaginal birth. In 2012, about 23 million C-sections were done globally. A 7-week old Caesarean section scar and linea nigra visible on a 31-year-old mother.
Longitudinal incisions are still sometimes used. Caesarean section is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby. C-sections are also carried out for personal and social reasons. Systematic reviews have found no strong evidence about the impact of caesareans for non-medical reasons. Babies are usually born head first. If the baby is in another position the birth may be complicated.
Decreasing experience of accoucheurs with the management of the breech presentation — Although obstetricians and midwives are extensively trained in proper procedures for breach presentation deliveries using simulation mannequins, there is decreasing experience with actual vaginal breech delivery which may increase the risk further. Adverse outcomes in low-risk pregnancies occur in 8. In those who are low risk, the risk of death for caesarean sections is 13 per 100,000 and for vaginal birth 3. 5 per 100,000 in the developed world. The difference in in-hospital maternal death was nonsignificant.
Transvaginal ultrasonography of a uterus years after a caesarean section, showing the characteristic scar formation in its anterior part. If a caesarean is performed in an emergency, the risk of the surgery may be increased due to a number of factors. Women who had caesarean sections are more likely to have problems with later pregnancies, and it is recommended that women who want larger families should not seek an elective caesarean unless there are medical indications to do so. The risk of placenta accreta, a potentially life-threatening condition which is more likely to develop where a woman has had a previous caesarean section, is 0. Mothers can experience an increased incidence of postnatal depression, and can experience significant psychological trauma and ongoing birth-related post-traumatic stress disorder after obstetric intervention during the birthing process.
Women who have had a caesarean for any reason are somewhat less likely to become pregnant again as compared to women who have previously delivered only vaginally, but the effect is small. Women who had just one previous caesarean section are more likely to have problems with their second birth. Both have higher risks than a vaginal birth with no previous caesarean section. There are many issues which must be taken into account when planning the mode of delivery for every pregnancy, not just those complicated by a previous caesarean section and there is a list of some of these issues in the list of indications for section in the first part of this article. Suturing of the uterus after extraction. Closed Incision for low transverse abdominal incision after stapling has been completed. There are a number of steps that can be taken during abdominal or pelvic surgery to minimize postoperative complications, such as the formation of adhesions.
Preventing infection with antibiotics given intravenously to the mother before skin incision However, despite these proactive measures, adhesion formation is a recognized complication of any abdominal or pelvic surgery. Chronic pelvic pain, which may result when adhesions are present in the pelvis. 39 weeks gestation “carry significant risks for the baby with no known benefit to the mother. Complications from elective caesarean before 39 weeks include: newborn mortality at 37 weeks may be up to 3 times the number at 40 weeks, and was elevated compared to 38 weeks gestation. For otherwise healthy twin pregnancies where both twins are head down a trial of vaginal delivery is recommended at between 37 and 38 weeks. In a research study widely publicized, singleton children born earlier than 39 weeks may have developmental problems, including slower learning in reading and math.
Wet lung: Retention of fluid in the lungs can occur if not expelled by the pressure of contractions during labor. Potential for early delivery and complications: Preterm delivery may be inadvertently carried out if the due-date calculation is inaccurate. One study found an increased complication risk if a repeat elective caesarean section is performed even a few days before the recommended 39 weeks. 28 days of life has been cited as 1.
77 per 1,000 live births among women who had caesarean sections, compared to 0. 62 per 1,000 for women who delivered vaginally. Birth by caesarean section also seems to be associated with worse health outcomes later in life, including overweight or obesity and problems in the immune system. Caesarean sections have been classified in various ways by different perspectives.